Global Availability of Key Metals for EV Battery Production
The specialized metals used in the manufacture of advanced batteries are finite global resources that must be accounted for in planning large-scale electric vehicle adoption. In addition to technical considerations related to global supply, extraction capacity, and demand, there are geopolitical factors that must be weighed based on the regional availability of these key materials. The links below offer snapshots of relevant considerations for each metal.
Battery technologies are rapidly evolving. So, the view of resource needs must be evaluated in the context of anticipated - though difficult-to-predict - technology changes that are likely to occur over time.
In general, the metals listed above are expected to play a role in battery production for the foreseeable future. However, the relative importance of each metal is likely to change over time. For example, many battery manufacturers are beginning to transition to reduced-cobalt cathodes.