As with most aspects of vehicle electrification, the primary impediment to mass deployment of public charging stations is money. For public charging stations to proliferate, there must be a positive business case that motivates public and private sector stakeholders to proceed aggressively. Part of the challenge is minimizing upfront capital expenses, while maximizing revenue through increased usage is also a key objective that is difficult to accomplish with low rates of electric vehicle adoption. There are currently few truly profitable models for operating charging stations, which is why public action is usually necessary to encourage installation of charging stations. In many cases, electrical utilities also play a critical role.